mercoledì 28 maggio 2008

The Roots of Scientology - Time-line Hubbard® & Scientology®


Un testo davvero grande ma che merita di essere letto, valutato e analizzato nei suoi dettagli. Troverete molte informazioni davvero interessanti e utili a comprendere meglio e a fondo la natura di questo movimento.


Il Blogger

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The Roots of
Scientology


Time-line Hubbard® & Scientology®

(Click here for scanned-in documents)

http://www.xs4all.nl/~kspaink/cos/LRH-bio/lrhpaper.htm


1885

Ledora May Waterbury born in Burnett, (later changed to Tilden) Neb. Her father is a small time rancher and veterinarian who did NOT own a quarter of the state as LRH would later claim. The Waterbury's were humble, hard working people who struggled just as everyone did in their location, to make a home for their large family.


1886

31 August. Henry August Wilson born at Fayette, Iowa. His mother dies at birth, he is adopted by Mr. and Mrs. James Hubbard of Frederiksburg, Iowa and renamed Harry Ross Hubbard. Later L. Ron Hubbard would claim all sorts of grandiose nonsense about his Hubbard lineage but in fact his father was an orphan and therefore LRH had not a drop of real Hubbard blood in him.


1909

25 April: Marriage of Ledora May Waterbury and Harry Ross Hubbard. Harry was at this time working as a clerk for the "Omaha World Herald" newspaper.


1911

10 March, 1911, birth of Lafayette Ronald Hubbard in Tilden, Neb.


1917

Harry Hubbard re-enlists in the US navy after the entry of America into the war


1918

Harry Hubbard makes officer grade, becomes assistant paymaster with the rank of ensign.


1920

While serving on the USS Aroostock Harry Hubbard becomes the subject of an inquiry concerning missing funds. Apparently there was no theft, merely bookkeeping errors.


1921

Harry Hubbard pursued by 14 creditors for unpaid bills amounting to $125.00. They take their complaints to the Navy Dept.


1922

Harry Hubbard posted to the USS Oklahoma as assistant supply officer. His wife and child move to San Diego, the ship's home port. Later that year he is sent the US Accounts School in Washington DC. They travel via the USS Grant through the Panama Canal.


1924

March: Hubbard becomes an Eagle Scout, later he would claim to have been the youngest in the country. Critics would later dispute this claim as the Boy Scouts listed their members only alphabetically, not by age. That fall the Hubbards return to the west coast and live in Seattle, WA, his ship's new home port.


1927

16 July: Harry Hubbard assigned officer in charge, US Commissary Store at the naval base in Guam. He leaves on 5 April, his family several weeks later. They go via Honolulu,Yokohama, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Manila. Total time from US to Guam: 36 days. 16 July Harry's son L. R. Hubbard returns to Bremerton on the USS Nitro. 6 Sept. L. Ron Hubbard enrolls as a junior in Helena High School while living with his maternal grandparents.


1928

14 May: Ron drops out of school and goes to Seattle to live with his aunt. He receives reluctant permission to go to his parents and arrives in Guam on 25 July. His mother begins to tutor him in hopes of getting him past the entrance examination at the US Naval Academy. Im October he and his mother go for a two month junket to China. They see Peking, Tsingtao, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Young Hubbard is oppressed by the smell and squalor of the places he visits. An entry in his diary reads: "The trouble with China is there are too many chinks there" and "they smell of all the baths they did not take.". He and mom arrive back in Guam 18 December.


1929

Hubbard fails his entrance exam to Annapolis. His father, now the Disbursing Officer at the US Naval Hospital in Washington, DC puts his son into the Swaely Preparatory school in Manasses, VA, for more intensive study. Here it is found that Ron's eyesight is defective forever ruling out the naval academy.


1930

Ron is enrolled at the Woodward School for Boys, in Washington, DC. That fall he is admitted to the School of Engineering at George Washington University. For the next two years he struggles to stay in school, most of 1931 is spent on academic probation.


1932

Summer break. Hubbard organizes a trip to the Caribbean. He and friends charter the old four-masted schooner Doris Hamilton and set forth in search of adventure. Their ambitious schedule includes collecting various fauna and flora as specimens for universities. Treasure hunting is also mentioned. Things, however, go wrong; eleven of the crew defect at the first port of call, the rest grimly persevere in the face of bad weather, seasickness and short funds. None of the high-minded goals had been completed, few even started. Despite claims later made by Hubbard that they made a geological survey of Puerto Rico (they did no such thing) the trip was considered a flop.

September, Hubbard returns to school only to drop out after reviewing his last semester's grades. He got an "F" in molecular and atomic physics, an area that he would later claim a degree in. His other grades were similarly unimpressive.


1933

13 April: Hubbard marries Margaret Louise Grubb. Nicknamed "Polly" she is pregnant when they wed. Two months after they were married she suffered a spontaneous abortion thought to be caused by overexertion while swimming.

18 August: A three column article in the Washington Daily News stating that L. Ron Hubbard had found gold (also platinum and iridium) on his in-laws farm in Maryland. Big plans are made to unearth the hidden wealth. Nothing comes of this, they continued living in near poverty. Hubbard's income for that year was a little less than $100.00.


1934

Hubbard studies pulp fiction which is big at that time in an effort to find out what the public is reading. Soon he is writing 5 to 20 thousand words per day. His first story "Green God" published appears in Thrilling Adventures. Soon after the "The Phantom Detective" is printed in Calling Squad Cars followed by "Sea Fang" in Five Novels Monthly. His rock'em, sock'em style appeals to readers. He now has the first steady, although modest, income in his life.

7 May: L. Ron Hubbard Jr. is born. Hubbard tenderly constructs a small incubator out of a cardboard box and lamp. After considerable effort by the parents the boy begins to thrive. The relationship between this boy and his father would become stormy in later life. Junior would one day disown his father and change his name.

Hubbard leaves his family and heads for NYC to get a first hand look at the writer's market. Over the years he would spend more and more time there. He meets the writers of that era, well-known and otherwise. The average pay is a penny a word, only a few get more. Competition is keen and to make more than a bare living wage is a challenge.


1935

Hubbard works with great zeal to sell his work. That year he had published 10 pulp novels, three novelettes and three non-fiction stories. He also writes the screen play for the Saturday matinee series The Secret of Treasure Island. This is the ONLY screen play that he ever wrote regardless of any claims to the contrary. Although he would later enjoy a reputation as a writer of science fiction Hubbard wrote many westerns. This year he wrote, among others "The Baron of Coyote River," for All Western besides more thrillers like "The Blow Torch Murder" for Detective Fiction."


1936

15 January. Catherine May Hubbard born. In July Hubbard's friend and literary critic gives him a boost with the preposterous and senseless claim that Hubbard had written over a million words so far. That absurd claim would be added to considerably over the years.


1937

Hubbard writes his first hard cover novel "Buckskin Brigades." He spends the advance on an old 30ft ketch to the bewilderment of his wife who wanted to be free, for once, of their mounting bills and creditors.


1938

An experiment using a rubber wheeled boat comes to grief as the craft split apart and foundered, Hubbard forced to swim for it.

John W. Campbell takes over as editor of " Astounding Magazine," that he later changes into "Astounding Science Fiction Magazine." His higher standards of writing do much to improve the fare offered readers. He meets Hubbard soon after taking over, a relationship that lasted for some years. July's edition contains "The Dangerous Dimension," that concerns time travel, a topic that interests Hubbard mightily. Another favorite theme is exaggerated mental powers, "The Tramp," a three-part novelette appeared during that year. Hubbard claimed to have written the mysterious and never revealed book, "Excalibar" that year. Apparently this was an important book on philosophy that he thought "Would have greater impact upon people than the Bible." Although his serious effort at philosophy died on the vine for lack of interest he did sell a large number of stories that included "Six Gun Caballero," "Hot lead Payoff," The Boss of the Lazy B," and Death Waits at Sundown." Perhaps it is well that "Excalibar" was never published for Hubbard claimed the book had such a powerful affect on people that several readers who had reviewed the book for him had either gone crazy or committed suicide.


1939

Hubbard grinds out more stories like "The Ultimate Adventure," that appeared in Unknown and "Slaves of Sleep," that appeared in the July edition of the same magazine. Not a big year when compared to his previous output. He wrote a mere seven novels and two short stories. His efforts might his been impeded by his persistent attempts to be appointed to the National Aeronautics Association on the strength of his previous gliding and flying experience.

1 September: Britain declares war on Germany. Hubbard writes to the Secretary of War offering his services, nothing is done though as the US declares neutrality. Hubbard virtually abandons his family for a small apartment in Manhattan.

12 December: Using credentials that nobody could have possibly checked out he is approved for membership in the prestigious NY Explorers Club. He now begins to call himself "Captain Hubbard."


1940

Hubbard writes "Fear," that appeared in "Unknown" besides "Typewriter in the Sky," and "Final Blackout."

16 May: Hubbard reports to the FBI that a German steward working at the Knickerbocker Hotel was a Nazi sympathizer whose sister belonged to the SS.

July: Hubbard sails his little 30' vessel the Maggie, north on a trip to Alaska. The name of the adventure was: 'ALASKAN RADIO-EXPERIMENTAL EXPEDITION." They arrive in Ketchican on August 30 after many problems with the ship's engine. While there they get a loan from the local bank which is never repaid.


1942

19 July: After a relentless barrage of letters from Hubbards friends, collages and congressman the navy commissions him as a Lieutenant (junior grade) in the US Naval Reserve.

February. After being transferred from one desk job to another Hubbard is posted to the Philippines. On a layover in Brisbane he so infuriates senior officers to the extent that he was sent home with a bad report. Again he rode a desk, this time in NYC censoring cables.

June: Posted to Neponset, MA to take command of a fishing trawler being converted to a gunboat. He is hounded by debtors who dun him for a variety of unpaid bills.

Hubbard was passed over to command this vessel due to his inability to get along with anyone. He is sent to the Submarine Chaser Training School in Miami instead.


1943

20 April: Hubbard takes command of USS PC 815, a new but small sub-chaser.

18-21 May: Hubbard has his ship repeatedly attack a suspected submarine. Other ships and even blimps join the attack but fail to find a target.

8 June: The navy command, after reviewing all data, discounts all possibility that there was a enemy sub in the area at the time Hubbard's ship attacked. The brass consider it a distinct possibility that Hubbard attacked a "Known magnetic deposit."

8 July: Hubbard relieved of command.

28 June: Hubbard has gunnery practice on a small uninhabited island of the coast of southern California. It turns out that this island is owned by Mexico, a minor diplomatic flap occurs. Hubbard is relieved of command and sent back to San Diego to ride a desk.

1943 October: Attends Naval Small Craft Training Center, San Pedro, CA, for a six week course.

December: Posted aboard the USS Algol, a ship now fitting out for heroic duty in the Pacific. The ship earned two battle stars for involment in the invastion of the Philipines and the landing at Okinawa. Hubbard did not partake of this glory having transferred to the Military Government School in Princeton.


1945

April: Hubbard diagnosed with an ulcer.

5 September: Hubbard admitted to the US Naval Hospital at Oakland, CA. Here he was treated for a duodenal ulcer. His other complaints included arthritis, hemorrhoids and headaches.

5 December: Hubbard leaves the hospital and is mustered out of the service. He never saw battle or smelled gunpowder fired in anger. The four medals he recieved (he would later claim over twenty medals) were the ones commonly given to those who served in the areas that he was in. He was not wounded and never was singled out for bravery or heroism despite claims to the contrary. All of his time in the navy is accounted for, he was not employed as a secret agent and he did not go behind enemy lines for any purpose at any time.

6 December: The day following his mustering out Hubbard files for disability listing a number of complaints.


1946

Hubbard meets, and eventually moves in with, John W. Parsons an eccentric but brilliant scientist. Parsons, a developer of rocket fuel was a devotee of the notorious Alistair Crowley. This Englishman, a self proclaimed reprobate and practitioner of the occult, considered himself the "Beast" mentioned in "The book of Revelation." Parson's large Victorian home in Los Angeles that he named "Ordo Temple Orientis," or OTO for short. People of odd beliefs and backrounds frequent the house to the disgust of the neighbors.

February: Hubbard gets a disability pension for $11.50 a month.

April: Parsons gives Hubbard $10,000 to go into partnership with him in the buying a boat. Hubbard takes the money and Parson's girlfriend (Sara Northrup) as well and departs.

1 July: Parsons tracks Hubbard and Sara to Miami and files suit against him in Dade Co. Court. This matter is settled out of court but Parsons gets little, if any of the money back. He leaves and has no further dealings with Hubbard. In 1952 he dies from an explosion in his garage while conducting chemical experiments.

10 August: Hubbard commits bigamy by marrying Sara Northrup (who does not know tha Ron was even married) while still married to his first wife.

19 Sept: Hubbard writes to the VA listing a variety of aliments; he is sent for a physical where only arthritis and a "Minimal duodenal deformity" are found. About this time he decides to get his former writing career in hand.


1947

14 April: His first wife files for divorce on the grounds of desertion and non-support. At this time they are living with Hubbards parents.

23 June: Polly given custody of their children and $50.00 a month support. She sees very little of this money over the years.

August: Forrest Ackerman becomes Ron's first literary agent. Later Hubbard will borrow thirty dollars from him because his first wife has gotten a lawyer after him to make him pay his support payments.


1948

27 January. "I cannot imagine how to repay the $51.00 as I am nearly penniless," Hubbard replies to a notice from the VA demanding the return of overpayments.

31 August. Hubbard fined $25.00 for writing a bad check in San Luis Obispo Co.

Later that year he and Sara move to Savannah, GA. Hubbard takes up his former career as a pulp fiction writer. His stories include "Gun Boss of Tumbleweed," "Blood on his Spurs," and "The emperor of the Universe."

December issue of "Astounding Science Fiction," a twenty-five-cent magazine, announces an upcoming non fiction story about the new science of "Dianetics." It says: "It's power is unbelievable. . . ulcers, asthma and arthritis can be cured, as can all other psychosomatic ills."


1950

8 March: Alexis Valerie Hubbard born.

April: Another mention of the upcoming article about the new science of Dianetics is made in "Astounding Science Fiction,": "A technique that gives any man a perfect, indelible, total memory, and perfect, errorless ability to compute his problems. A basic answer, and a technique for curing-not alleviating ulcers, arthritis, asthma, and many non-germ diseases. A totally new conception of the truly incredible ability and power of the human mind."

May: The long awaited article on "Dianetics" appears in "Astounding Science Fiction" magazine. The ad touting the story on the cover is next to a large glowering ape like figure who figured in another story contained in that issue. This is the first science ever launched from a magazine of pulp fiction. The story itself is somewhat vague for Hubbard cleverly abstained from giving away too much too soon. It was merely a device to wet the public's appetite for the upcoming book.

9 May: "Dianetics, the Modern Science of Mental Health," hits the bookstores. It is published by the small firm of Hermitage House. Critics pan the book calling it "Incomprehensible."

Sales languish at first as only sci-fi devotees buy the book but by degrees sales pick up putting it on the best sellers list. Ron takes his first royalty check and buys a big luxury Lincoln with it. Soon he is giving courses in Dianetics for $500, a large sum in those days.

10 August: Before a large crowd at the Shriner's auditorium Hubbard shows off the world's first "Clear." The event proves to be a humiliating fiasco as Sonya Bianca can perform none of the wonders that a clear is supposed to possess. Gleeful reporters ask if she can tell them the color of Hubbards tie (his back was turned for a moment) - she hangs her head in shame unable to reply.

Not long after this a certain Dr. Winter, a medical doctor who supported Hubbards assertions quits the Dianetics movement after concluding that Hubbard conducted no research and that this system was not without danger. He had seen two preclears develop acute psychoses during auditing.

3 November: Art Ceppos, president of Hermitage House quits the Dianetics foundation. Hubbard reports him to the FBI as a communist. About this time Hubbard invents "Guk," a mixture of Benzedrine, vitamins and glutamic acid, to facilitate auditing.

December: "Look" magazine publishes a scathing review of Hubbard's work calling it a "poor man's psychiatry."


1951

The New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners institute proceedings against Hubbard for teaching medicine without a license. Hubbard flees to LA to avoid prosecution.

24 February: Following a series of domestic disputes with his wife Hubbard abducts the child.

25 February: Hubbard returns the next day and forces his wife to accompany him the Yuma airport. A juicy farce ensues that will later provide grist for many a newsman's mill. Hubbard gets his wife to sign a paper absolving him of any wrong doing, she in turn expects to get the baby back. At this time his first wife Polly initiates legal proceeding against him to collect owed child support. The Dianetics foundation of NJ is besieged by creditors.

3 March: Hubbard sends a list of suspected communists to the FBI. Heading the list of 15 people is his wife. A week later he is interviewed by an agent of the FBI who concludes that Hubbard is a "mental case."

12 April: Hubbard takes his child to Havana to effectively put her beyond his wife's reach. Newspaper headlines in the US: "Cult Founder Accused of Tot Kidnap," and "Hiding of Baby Charged to Dianetics Founder."

13 April: Hubbard applies to the US Embassy in Havana for protection from communists who are trying to steal his work.

23 April: Sara Hubbard petitions for divorce citing "extreme cruelty, great mental anguish and physical suffering," besides "systematic torture, including loss of sleep, beatings. . .bigamy, kidnaping and crazy misconduct." Hubbard's fledgling empire now in tatters as he is hounded by creditors and bad-mouthed in the press.

May: Hubbard goes to Wichita, Kansas at the invitation of wealthy real estate developer Don Purcell. Soon after, with Purcell's backing, they open a Dianetics center in that town. This was a move that Purcell would live to regret.

2 May: A letter from Hubbard's first wife to Sara Hubbard states: "You must get Alexis in your custody. Ron is not normal. I hoped that you could straighten him out. Your charges probably sound fantastic to the average person, but I've been through it- the beatings, threats on my life, all the sadistic traits that you charge-12 years of it."

14 May: Sara's attorney files another motion for Hubbards assets in LA be placed in receivership. The same day Hubbard writes a seven page letter to the Department of Justice claiming that Sara had attempted to kill him by sticking a needle into his heart and hooking it up to an electrical outlet. He repeats the charge that she is a communist.

12 June: In return for custody of her daughter Sara Hubbard allows Ron to divorce her, an attempt by him to save what was left of his reputation.

June: Hubbard writes "Science of Survival" and introduces the tone scale.

Summer: Ron meets 19 yr. old Mary Sue Whipp in Wichita, she is a student at the U. Of Texas.

November: Hubbard's attempt to enroll elite scientists in a plan to store their research in bomb-proof caves in Arizona fizzles. Most who receive his promo literature are suspicious of it and pass it on to the FBI whose files on Hubbard are by this time bulging. The FBI sourly notes in an internal memo that Hubbard is "mentally incompetent" and has "delusions of grandeur."


1952

12 February: Purcell and other members of the Dianetics board of directors vote Hubbard out for gross mis-management.

March: Hubbard, by this time no longer in control of Dianetics, announces that he has a new device, called the "e-meter" that will figure prominently in his new science that he calls "Scientology." He takes time out during this month to marry one of his followers, Mary Sue Whipp who is now at this time two months pregnant.

April: Hubbard opens a Scientology office in Phoenix, Arizona. He discovers the state of OT (operating thetan). Later he would say "Neither Lord Buddha nor Jesus Christ were OT's according to evidence. They were just a shade above clear."

July: Hubbard writes "The History of Man." Critics call it one of the most unintentionally funny books ever written. It impresses his adherents but scientists and scholars dismiss his assertions as sheer balderdash written by a man ignorant of history, geology, anthropology and a host of other disciplines.

September: Hubbard and wife move to London, England.

16 December: Hubbard returns to the US to give a series of lectures in Philadelphia. There he is arrested for wrongfully withdrawing $9,286.00 from the now bankrupt Wichita Dianetics Foundation. He agrees to pay restitution and the matter is dropped.


1953

Hubbard awarded a Pd.D. from the "University of Sequoia," a diploma mill run by a LA Chiropractor who conferred degrees on anyone that he felt worthy.

6 January: Geoffrey Quinten McCaully Hubbard born.

November: Hubbard gets Dianetics back under his control when former business partner Don Purcell, tired of the endless litigation, gives up the fight.


1954

Mary Suzette Rochelle Hubbard born.

The Church of Scientology, California, incorporated.


1955

11 July. Hubbard writes to the FBI complaining that evil accountants and communists are trying to ruin him. The FBI declines to answer any more of his letters because: "Rambling, meaningless nature and lack of any pertinence to Bureau interest."

7 September. Hubbard complains to the FBI that the American Psychological association was trying to poison Scientologists with LSD.


1956

Scientology begins to prosper and from this point on makes money regardless of controversy.


1957

Hubbard's personal income now estimated a $250,000 per year.

"All About Radiation" is published by famed nuclear physicist and doctor, L. Ron Hubbard. He also invents a weird vitamin compound called "Dianazene" which is supposed to cure radiation sickness. The FDA takes a dim view of this and confiscates 21,000 tablets. Hubbard takes time to send the FBI a pamphlet on brain -washing that he had supposedly got from communist sources. The FBI concludes it a fake and add it to the already crowded files on Hubbard.

June, 1957: The CIA starts a file, No. 156409, on Hubbard.

June: Hubbard gives a series of lectures in Washington, DC. Scientologists film the even but when lab technicians developed it they are so outraged at the anti-American content that they report Hubbard to the FBI.


1958

8 June: Arthur Conway Hubbard born. By this time there are more than sixty books on Scientology written by Hubbard.

Summer: Hubbard purchases and moves into Saint Hill Manor in East Grimstead, Sussex, England. Formerly owned by the Maharajah of Jaipur it is was built in 1733 by a wealthy landowner. The people welcome the famous American "Dr. Hubbard," into their midst. At first all goes well with the townspeople, a relationship soon to change.

August: The local paper, the "Courier" reports the "nuclear scientist, Dr. Hubbard," was experimenting with the growing of vegetables. A picture of Hubbard with an e-meter attached to a tomato plant appeared in "Garden News," and when the British press heard about it there was a scramble to the gates of St. Hill. This famous picture of Hubbard eventually found itself into "Newsweek," magazine in the US.


1959

Hubbard alarmed to find out that his oldest son "Nibs" had left Scientology complaining that although his father gave him a lot of duties, titles and responsibilities his father didn't pay him enough money to earn a living.

December: Hubbard's mother is on her deathbed. Under pressure from his aunt he reluctantly flies back to the US and Bremerton. He arrives too late to speak with her, she is in a coma and soon dies. Hubbard pays for the funeral expenses and marker stone but pleads urgent business and skips the funeral. The relatives are outraged at his behavior.


1960

March: The solid citizens of East Grimstead read a report in the "Courier," about a book written by the local Dr. Hubbard entitled, "Have You Lived Before This Life?" Much interest is aroused concerning this eccentric American and his steady stream of followers. Also talked about locally were the strange "security checks" made on members of the staff and the servants. This involved the use of the e-meter which the residents thought some sinister device.

Hubbard's success was now interesting the FBI who had prior to this time dismissed him as a mental case. He became the only American owner of a country house in England to be kept under suveilence. File No. 244-210-B.

October-November. Hubbard gives a series of lectures in South Africa.

December. Hubbard flies to the US for a series of lectures in Washington, DC.


1961

Hubbard returns to South Africa for more lectures.

March: St. Hill is expanded to accomadate the growing number of auditors who show up for his special breifing courses. Cost: L250.

Security checks are stepped up with more questions like: "Have you ever had intercourse with a member of your family," and "Have you ever had anything to do with a baby farm?" Despite the intrusive questions people, mainly Americans, flock to St. Hill where additional housing was made to receive them.


1962

Hubbard writes a letter to the White House to advise President Kennedy that Scientology methods would be very usefull to the space program and offers to train American astronauts. Hubbard orders his staff to make peperations to receive the astronauts.


1963

4 January, 1963: The astornauts didn't come but the FAD did in a raid that siezed mounds of paperwork and hundreds of e-meters. The government alleged massive medical fraud in their use.

March: Hubbard issues a general amnesty to all who had been declared suppressive persons and booted out of Scientolgy.

May: Hubbard reveals that he had twice visited heaven. His first visit to heaven, a town high in the mountains on an alien planet, went well enough but when he came back three-million years later he found the place in a sad state of disrepair. Later this embarrassing pair of bulletins would be deleted from Scientolgy's list of Hubbard's writings.


1964

March: Hubbard gives his last interview with the press. In an interview with the "Saturday Evening Post," he claims that his wages from Scientology are just $70.00 a week and that Fidel Castro had contacted him about training an elite corps of Cuban Scientologists.


1965

October: The Australian Board of Inquiry into Scientology publishes a long and sarcastic report. A sample quote: "Scientology is evil; it's techniques evil; it's practice a serious threat to the community, medically, morally and socially; and it's adherents sadly deluded and often mentally ill." As to Hubbard, "His sanity is gravely doubted."


1966

February: Lord Balniel, MP, asked the British government to investigate Scientology. Hubbard responds by hiring a private detective to investigate Lord Balniel. Unfortunately the detective ran off and sold his story to the newspapers thereby creating even more ill feeling for Scientology.

March: The "Guardian's Office" is created at St. Hill, England. The primary purpose of this entity is to sue Hubbards opponents and harass them with dirty tricks.

April: Hubbard goes to Rhodesia to see what the prospects are for Scientology in that area. He also wants to look for lost treasure that he, as the former Cecil Rhodes, had buried. The CIA take note of him but are told by Washington that Hubbard is a "crack-pot," of "doubtful mental background."

18 July: Hubbard booted out of Rhodesia because of his bad reputation and attempted meddling in local politics.


1967

Hubbard, smarting over the defeats that he had suffered at the hands of various governments creates his own navy. The "Sea Org" is born. Here he will be beyond the reach of law and the scrutiny of hostile reporters. He refits the "Enchanter" a forty ton sea going schooner that he bought the previous year along with the 414 ton "Avon River," an old North Sea trawler. Soon would follow the "Royal Scotsman," a 3,200 former cattle ferry that had plied the Irish Sea for the last thirty years. Later, due to a spelling mistake that occurred while completing the paperwork necessary to register the vessel under the flag of Sierra Leon the ship's name inadvertently changed to the "Royal Scotman."

During this year the fledgling navy seasoned with some genuine sailors hired by the thoughtful Hubbard sail the Mediterranean. Things do not always go well, the inexperienced crew members attempt to sail using Hubbard's system of radio wave detection but they are not up to the task and frequently get lost. Storms play their part to and when the hired sailors return to port they had much to say to reporters about there experiences. "Ahoy There: It's the Craziest Cruise on Earth" says "The People" on 21, February.

Hubbard continued his development of upper Scientology doctrine, during the next few years much of the OT series was written. Notable too is the formation of the Rehabilitation Project Force (RPF) that was designed to punish malefactors aboard the ship. Tales of Hubbard's cruelty would eventually surface further tarnishing his name.


1968

"USIS OFFICER STATES THAT HUBBARD RUNS FLOATING "UNIVERSITY" OF QUESTIONABLE MORAL CHARACTER- NOT ACCREDITED ANY US UNIVERSITIES AND POOR REPRESENTATIVE FOR US ABROAD. . .FLOATING COLLEGE PROBABLY PART OF CHARLATAN CULT." CIA cable traffic June/July 1968

April: Hubbard musters his crew for an important task. They are to find on the coast of Corsica a hidden space ship base complete with craft. However, just before they could find the secret entrance that would only open with Hubbard's palm print they get an urgent cable from Hubbard's wife. Mary Sue complains of serious trouble with the Spanish government causing him to immediately weigh anchor and head for Spain. The UFO fleet unfortunately is never found anymore than the gold treasure that Hubbard was always looking for. Gold did come to Ron's way starting over the next few years but it was modern, not ancient treasure.

July: Hubbard is declared an undesirable alien by the British government. Kenneth Robinson, health minister says: "The Government is satisfied having reviewed all the available evidence, that Scientology is socially harmful. It alienates members of families from each other and attributes squalid and disgraceful motives to all who oppose it."

August: Major John Forte, British Vice-counsel on the Greek island of Corfu sees Hubbard's flagship "Royal Scotman" steaming into the harbor and correctly deduces that it is the "sinister Scientology ship." Later he would write a humorous booklet entitled, "The Commodore and the Colonels."

August: Scientologist James Stewart, 35, found dead in suspicious circumstances outside a window at the advanced org in Edinburgh. Stewart, an epileptic had just completed an ethics condition wherein he stayed awake for 80 hours. He was in trouble with Scientology over his failure to rid himself of his physical problems; the following notice was posted on the org bulletin board: "James Stewart has been put in a Condition of Doubt for having seizures in public and thus invalidating Scientology. If there is any reoccurrence of these either consciously or unconsciously on his part he will be placed in a Condition of Enemy."Author and ex-Scientolgist Jon Atack speculates that Stewart fell from the roof while engaged in an ethics penance.

Meanwhile, back in Greece Hubbard tried to ingratiate himself with the Greek authorities by promising to found a university and make Corfu a great center of learning. He even renamed his ships with suitable Greek names. The "Royal Scotman" became the "Apollo", The "Avon River" the "Athena" and the "Enchanter" became the "Diana." However the Greek authorities were not impressed. They found the teachings of Scientology to be incomprehensible and some of their activities very strange to say the least. The morning ritual of "overboarding" errant crew members (simply pitching them over the side of the ship) began to draw amused crowds of tourists and dock workers. Inquires to other nations about Scientology brought less than enthusiastic response.

December: Scientology tries to take over the membership of the National Association of Mental Health in London. Officers of that group become suspicious of the hundreds of new members joining just before the annual election. All such applications bear the postmark of East Grinstead.


1969

March 19: Hubbard given 24 hours to leave Greek waters. The astonished Hubbard was beside himself with rage at being given the boot but there was nothing he could do but slip his cable and sail away.

September 26: Cable from US Consul General, Casablanca, to Washington: "It is possible that Commodore Hubbard and his wife. . .are philanthropists of some kind and/or eccentrics, but if one does not accept this as an explanation, there has to be some other gimmick involved in this operation. What this gimmick might be is unknown here, although people from Casablanca have speculated variously from smuggling to drug traffic to a far-out religious cult."

November 2: Hubbard declares that he is the victim of a vast and nefarious international conspiracy. The details, he said, are to be found in the "Tenyaka Memorial," a mysterious document that has so far never been unearthed. Hubbard instructs his wife, Mary Sue, to crank up security, already elaborate, to new heights to meet the threat. During this time he sails aimlessly off the Spain and N. Africa. Hubbard, now attended by prepubescent girls in fetching attire alternately bullies and praises his crew. Sometimes he works long hours on preclear files, sometimes he drinks rum and unbends with a tale or two yet other times he bellows with rage if his shirts are not rinced with enough water to remove all trace of soap smell.


1971

25, June: Scientologist Susan Meister found dead aboard the "Apollo" while in the port of Casablanca, Morocco. Her father flies in a few days later to investigate this apparent suicide. Hubbard refuses to see him and the local authorities are mysteriously silent. Meister came to believe that the events that transpired concerning his daughter's death were very different from the official line given him by Scientology. He would later testify at the Clearwater hearings.

Paulette Cooper writes "The scandal of Scientology," and is rewarded for her efforts by the Guardians Office with years of persecution. An all out effort is made against this woman in hopes of ruining her mental sanity or getting her put into jail. She is sued dozens of times, threatened with death and spied upon. This campaign of terror is code named "Operation Freakout." Her "boyfriend" who is in reality an agent of Scientology, obtains her fingerprints on a blank piece of paper and uses it to write Henry Kissinger a death threat. Cooper narrowly averts a prison sentence. Eventually documents proving Scientology's complicity in this nefarious affair come to light when The FBI raided Scientology offices ending operation "Snow White.'


1972

Hubbard begins this year seriously ill with a variety of complaints. He takes up residence in a small villa near Tangiers. His staff do their utmost to curry favor in that country. All came to naught though as word comes that Hubbard is about to be indicted in France for fraud. Fearing extradition he flees to Lisbon. Later in the year he travels to NYC where he lives in seclusion.


1973

Word comes from Mary Sue Hubbard who by now had been established as head of the Guardian's Office," that the threat of extradition had diminished enough for Hubbard to return to his ships. The GO had the responsibility of providing intelligence/counter-intelligence as well as handling any and all enemies of Scientology. Over the years they sued or hounded many critics of Scientology into submission. The "Apollo" begins further aimless cruises off the coast of Spain.

November. Hubbard breaks an arm and two ribs while on a motorcycle in Morocco. He declines any medical attention and is in pain and miserable for months to come.


1974

Hubbard who had told the same lies year after year about his decorations and citations from the US Navy apparently came to believe his own tales. He gives permission to his staff to apply to the Navy for his decorations which were presumably lost. Their efforts come to nothing as the navy fails to find any record of them ever being issued.

October: The "Apollo" is stoned in the port of Funchal. Madeira. The locals, under the mistaken idea that Scientologists were members of the CIA, riot and throw cars and motorcycles belonging to crew members over the end of the dock.


1975

Having worn out his welcome in the Mediterranean Hubbard sets sail for the US. He intends to go to Charleston, SC but he is tipped off the IRS and FBI agents are lurking around the harbor so Hubbard enters the Caribbean. Sometime during the summer he suffers a heart attack and is hospitalized in Curacao. Soon though his ship is ejected by the Dutch prime minister.

July. Michael Shannon, an obscure and mysterious person in the history of Scientology, begins to take a very close look at the life of L. Ron Hubbard. He obtains Hubbard's school records, his war record and conducts a general one man investigation of Hubbard. His work would later be circulated among those interested in the subject, including biographer Omar Garrison and Gary Armstrong. Most of what Shannon unearthed was at complete odds with accounts of Hubbard's life as published by Scientology.

CIA cable 16 October 1975 : 'REVIEW OF AVAILABLE INFO REGARDING OVERSEAS ACTIVITIES CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY REVEALS ONLY THAT ITS FOUNDER L. RON HUBBARD IS ECCENTRIC MILLIONAIRE WHO HAS BEE EXPELLED FROM RESIDENCE IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES BECAUSE OF HIS ODD ACTIVITIES AND BEHAVIOR. HE IS OWNER OF SEVERAL SHIPS WHOSE APPEARANCE IN PORTS HAS STIMULATED QUERIES . . . FROM OTHER GOVERNMENTS ASKING INFO RE VESSELS MISSION AND CREW. RESPONSES INDICATE WE KNOW VERY LITTLE.'

August: The Sea org comes ashore in Daytona Beach, FL in great secrecy. The "Apollo" is sent back to the Caribbean. Hubbard looks around for a land base an rests his eye on the quiet city of Clearwater, just north of St. Petersburg. October. "Southern Land Sales" buys the Ft. Harrison Hotel for $2.3 million and the old Bank of Clearwater building for another $550,000. The deals are concluded in great secrecy. Soon it is announced that "The United Churches of Florida" had leased both properties.

5 December: Hubbard moves into a small condo complex in Dunedin, immediately north of Clearwater. Elaborate security is maintained.

"Operation Snow White," the code name for efforts by the GO's office to infiltrate various government agencies, is in full swing. Hubbard had planned it a few years previous as sort of an early warning system to advise him on government plans to prosecute him. He worries constantly about the IRS and the FBI. His wife, Mary Sue, is in overall charge. Soon they would clandestinely steal thousands of government documents and infiltrate the FBI, IRS, Coast Guard and the Drug Enforcement Agency. But their success almost became the Waterloo of Scientology in time to come.

In Clearwater mayor Gabriel Cazares publicly wonders why the "United Churches of Florida" need uniformed security guards who are armed with mace and clubs. He, along with other area politicians and public figures, is put on Scientology's "enemy" list.


1976

January: Betty Orsini, a reporter for the "St. Petersburg Times," is reported by Scientology agents to be close to finding out the truth about who the latest group of immigrants to Clearwater really are. Scientologist June (real name was "Phillips") Byrne, working undercover at the Clearwater "Sun" reports that newsman Mark Sableman is also beginning to put two and two together. The coverage of Scientology would someday net the "Times" a Pulitzer Prize, besides the inevitable lawsuits.

28, January: Scientology forestalls a planned coup by the "Times" and spills the beans at a press conference.

29, January: Scientology sues Clearwater mayor Cazares for libel, slander and civil rights violations. He would fight Scientology in the courts and press for years to come and was undaunted in his efforts to clear his name and show the world the dark side of Scientology.

Hubbard flees the Clearwater area after a tailor who is a science fiction buff recognizes him as the famous author and cult leader. Hubbard goes to Washington, D.C.

March: Scientologists fake a hit and run car accident in an effort to smear Gabe Cazares while he is attending a national conference of mayors in Washington, D.C. This attempt to ruin Cazares's career comes to light when "Snow White" is blown.

11, June: Two Scientologists are questioned concerning their presence in the U.S. Courthouse Library at the foot of capital hill. Their passes are bogus, "Snow White" begins to unravel.

October: Hubbard moves his family into a ranch La Quinta, CA. They are guarded by two of Mary Sue's dogs both of whom are "clear" and therefore will only attack suppressive persons.

28, October: Quentin Hubbard commits suicide in Las Vegas. Due to a lack of identification on the body the Hubbards don't learn of it until November 17. Mary sue is heartbroken, Ron furious. Trusted agents are sent to clean up the matter and distance Hubbard as far from this sad event as possible. Hubbard's dynastic hopes die with Quentin.


1977

Hubbard develops the "Purification Run-Down." It is a system of saunas and mega doses of vitamins designed to rid the body of toxins and chemical residues. He hopes to get the Nobel Prize for this but only gets lawsuits from people injured by the toxic doses of vitamins and injured from the too lengthy time in the sauna.

8, July: One of the most massive raids in the history of the FBI smashes "Snow White" and Scientology. More than 130 agents raid Scientology headquarters in Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. Thousands of documents (48, 148) are seized. Activities of the Guardian's Office come to light making headlines throughout the country. Hubbard flees to an obscure town in Nevada knowing that he is only one step ahead of the law. From this point on the number of people knowing his true whereabouts will decline. Many people, including Paulette Cooper's lawyers, would love to know where Hubbard is hiding.


1978

15 August: A federal grand jury indites 10 Scientologists, including Hubbard's wife, for their participation is Snow White. There are a total of 28 counts: conspiring to steal government documents, theft of government documents , harboring a fugitive, perjury and obstruction of justice. Hubbard himself is listed as an "unindicted co-conspirator." He stays in seclusion leaving his wife to face the music alone.


1979

26, October: All Scientologists on trial are found guilty. In a plea bargain Mary Sue Hubbard gets five years in federal prison. As operation "Freakout" comes to light concerning Paulette Cooper and the fake accident involving mayor Gabe Cazares, Hubbard is relentlessly pilloried in the press.


1980

Hubbard now disappears for good to a remote ranch in CA. He fears summonses from the IRS, Dept. Of Justice and Paula Coopers lawyers. Only three people know where he is: Annie and Pat Broeker, David Miscavige. Hubbards personal income at this time is about a million dollars a week.


4 commenti:

Ernesto ha detto...

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